Printing on a printer, that is, directly from a digital file without using a stencil. Paint is applied in a thin layer on the surface of the sheet, for this they use either an inkjet printer, which creates an image with the help of ink droplets, or a laser, which repeatedly passes rays through the inner drum of the device. The easiest and most affordable way to print zines.
Printing using photocopy. The image from the layout on the scan panel using electrostatic discharges transfers the toner particles onto the paper, and then heats and presses to fix it. The classic way to create zines, but now in its pure form is less and less.
A special screen printing machine created by the Japanese company Riso in 1980. The layout in a digital file or objects on the scan panel are burned by a risograph on a disposable master film, it is wrapped around a drum with paint in the center of the machine, and through the slots, the ink enters the paper, which passes through the slot at high speed. It allows you to cheaply and quickly print the necessary print run, but only one color at a time, so the price increases depending on the complexity of the layout and the number of colors on the sheet. Very popular among illustrators and independent comic book authors.
Text and images on metal plates are transferred to rubber forms, which then leave paint on the paper. Since the plates do not come in direct contact with the paper, their wear is significantly reduced, so using this method it is most profitable to print a large print run.
On a stone or aluminum plate, the artist draws the original image in bold lithographic pencil or ink, and then etches the remaining areas with an acidic composition: it passes water, but not printing ink. Then the author washes off the drawing and puts paint on the surface of the plate, which is fixed only in the places of the former drawing. Further, the paper is tightly pressed to the surface of the stone, rolled, after which the image remains on it. Refers to a flat print.
Woodcut and Linocut
An image that forms a relief is cut onto a wooden board or piece of linoleum. The raised surface is coating with ink and printing on paper. Refers to letterpress.
Silk screen printing
A kind of screen printing for which metal grids are used as a form, and on them using photo emulsion form the areas through which the ink will pass. UV radiation fixes the photo layer on the surface of the grid, and the areas covered by the positive image are washed off with water and they become printed elements. Using a squeegee, a single coat of paint is applied to the grid to be metered onto the surface of the sheet. Authors rarely use silk-screen printing to create zines, but often do prints.